ed- (*heĝh-)

    ed- (*heĝh-)
    English meaning: to eat, *tooth
    Note: From an older root (*heĝh-) derived Root ed- (*heĝh-): “to eat, *tooth” and Root ĝembh-, ĝm̥bh- : “to bite; tooth”
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “essen”
    Note: originally athematic, but mostly thematic change
    Note: Common Illyr.-Balt ĝh- > d-, z-, O.Pruss. - Illyr. ĝh- > zz-, ss-, s- phonetic mutation
    Material: O.Ind. athematic present 1. sg. ád-mi, 3. sg. át-ti “you eat”, perf. üdimá (: Lat. ēdimus, Goth. etum); themat. in Medium ada-sva; Av. 3. sg. Konj. aδüiti; Arm. utem “eat”, themat. (*ōd-); Gk. Hom. Infin. ἔδμεναι, Fut. (older Konj.) ἔδ-ο-μαι, Imper. originally *ἔσθι (: O.Ind. addhí), thereafter secondary ἐσθίω (ἔσθω) “eat”; secondary themat. ἔδω (after participle ἐδοντ- and the thereafter resulted in 3. pl. ἔδοντι), perf. Hom. ἐδ-ηδ-ώς, ἐδήδοται (after πέπο-ται), Att. ἐδήδοκα; Lat. edō, ēs, ēst etc “eat” (length of ē either old or after the sog. Lachmann’s rule to define; if old in participle ēsus and passive ēs(s)um?); perf. ēdī; Osc. Infin. edum, about Umbr. ezariaf see under S. 288; O.Ir. Konj. ci-ni estar “ although he does not eat “ (*ed-s-tro), Fut. īss- (*i-ed-s-), perf. dofūaid (*de-u(p)o-od-e), participle esse “ eaten “ (*ed-ti̯o-); Welsh ys “you eat” (*ed-ti); Goth. themat. itan (perf. 1. pl. ētum, O.H.G. üzum etc: aLat. ēdimus), O.N. eta, O.S. O.E. etan, Eng. eat, O.Fris. īta, O.H.G. ezzan “eat” (= O.Ind. ádanam “ act of eating “, Gk. ἐδανόν “dish, food”); with prefix fra- (*pro-): Goth. fra-itan “ consume “, O.E. fretan “ gnaw “, O.H.G. frezzan “ devour “; kaus. Goth. fra-atjan; O.N. etia “ allow to consume “, O.E. ettan “ allow to graze “, O.H.G. azzen, ezzen “ give to eat, allow to graze “, Ger. ätzen, actually “ a spicy dish that can be eaten “; Maybe Alb.Gheg etun “thirsty”, etje “thirst” Bal.-Slav. *ēd-mi in: Lith. e ́du, e ́džiau, e ́sti (alt. ė́[d]mi, 3. sg. e ́st) “eat, devour “, Supin. e ́stų; Ltv. ę̂mu (older *ę̂mi) and êdu, êst ds., Supin. êstu; O.Pruss. īst, īstwei “eat”; O.C.S. jamь (*ěmь), 3. sg. jastъ (*ěstъ) IE *ēd-ti), 3. pl. jadętъ (IE *ēdn̥ ti), Infin. jasti (old ěsti), Supin. jastъ, O.Cz. jěst; Lith. participle ėd́ ęs, O.Pruss. īduns, O.C.S. jadъ “ having eaten “; Hitt. et- “eat”, Imper. e-it (et), 1. sg. present e-it-mi (etmi), 3. pl. a-da-an-zi (adanzi); the first a through assimilation?, s. Friedrich IF. 41, 371; different Pedersen Hitt. 128; in compounds: Gk. ἄ̄ρι-στον (*-d-tom) “ breakfast “; with lengthening in compound δειπνηστός “ mealtime “, δορπηστός “ time for supper, evening meal, evening “ (compare also Hom. ὠμησής “ Rohes essend “: O.Ind. ümüd- ds.); Gk. ἐδεστός, -τέος is arranged from *ἐστός, *ἐστέος after ἔδομαι (as ἐδεσθῆναι from *ἐσθῆναι). nominal formation: 1. Lengthened grade: ēdi̯ o-, ēdi̯ ü: in O.Ind. üdyá - “ edible “ (üdyūna- “ voracious “ is derived from *üdyu-ḥ “ eating food, “); O.N. ǣtr “ eatable “ (compare also Goth. afētja m. “ excessive eater “); Lith. ėd́ žios f. pl. “ Raufe “, ėdžià “ devourer “ (originally “ food fed to livestock “), e d̃ is m. “dish, food”, mės-e ̃dis “ carnivore, family of meat-eating animals”; O.Pruss. īdis m. “food, eating”; Russ. jěžá “food, eating, dish, food” (under likewise; s. Berneker 271 f.); about Lat. inĕdia “ fast “ s. WH. 393. ēdo-, ēdü: in O.N. üt n. “ ravenousness, dish, food” (also üta f. “ ravenousness, nourishment, food”), O.E. ǣt n., O.S. üt n., O.H.G. üz n. “dish, food” (compare also Goth. uzēta m. “crib, manger “), Lith. e ́da f. “the eating” (= O.N. üta), Ltv. êdas f. pl. “ food fed to livestock “, O.Pruss. īdai f. nom. sg. “ the eating “, O.C.S. оbědъ “repast, meal” (perhaps also jadъ “ poison “, s. Berneker 271 f.), Russ. jědá f. “ breakfast, dish, food”. ēdi-: in O.C.S. jadь “dish, food”, medv-ědь “the bear” (honey eater, compare O.Ind. madhv-ád- ds.). ēd-to-: in Lith. e ́stas “ eaten “, O.Pruss. Subst. dat. sg. īstai “food, eating”, mbg. jasto “ serving of food “, etc. ēdes-: in Lith. e ̃desis “dish, food”, ėskà f. “ appetite “, old “ food fed to livestock, carrion “ = Lat. ēsca (*ēd-s-kü) “dish, food, food fed to livestock, carrion “, Ltv. ēška “ wolverine “; O.H.G. O.S. üs “ flesh of a dead body, bait, carrion “, O.E. ǣs “ carrion “ (*ēd-s-om); O.C.S. jasli pl. m. “ crib, manger, manger” (*ēd-s-li-); if Umbr. ezariaf stands for “food”, it can be maybe explained from *ēdes-üsio-; different about Lith. ėskà EM2 295. Maybe Alb. eshkë “dried mushrooms for kindling the fire” With ō: Gk. ὠδίς f., pl. ὠδῖνες “throes of childbirth”, ὠδίνω “ be in labor pains “ (Frisk Etyma Armen.13); ἐδ-ωδ-ή “dish, food” (compare ἐδηδώς); in addition Lith. úodas, Ltv. uôds m. “ mosquito “ (Schulze KZ. 43, 41 =Kl. Schr. 627; from Zubatý AfslPh. 16, 407, Brugmann Grundr. I2 337 placed to wRuss. wadzen “ a gad-fly, horse-fly, breese “). 2. Full grade, e.g.: O.Ind. ádman- n. “dish, food” (: ἔδμεναι); -advan- “ eating “; Arm. erkn “ birth pain, labor pains “ (*edu̯ōn), erk “plague” (*edu̯o-?); Hom. εἶδαρ, -ατος n. “nourishment, food” (i.e. ἔδFαρ, compare ἔδαρ βρῶμα Hes.), ἐδητύς, ἔδεσμα “dish, food”; Lat. prandium “ a late breakfast, luncheon “ (*pram-ediom?), edulus “ trencherman “ (see also WH. I under acrēdula, ficedula and monēdula), edūlis “ eatable “ (possibly because of from Fick III4 24, Falk-Тоrp under jætte as *etuna- “ voracious eater “ or “ cannibal “ our root form added to O.N. jǫtunn “ giant “, O.E. eoten “ giant “, older N.Ger. eteninne “ witch “ an older u- stem edu- is added?); 3. ŏ-grade: ὀδύνη (Eol. but ἔδυνα) “pain” (compare Lat. cūrae edücēs), ὀδύρομαι “ lament, bewail, mourn for, felt pain” etc. (influenced from μύρομαι “ flow, run, trickle, cry, weep”). edont-, dont-, dn̥t- “tooth”, probably previous participle present O.Ind. dán m., acc. dántam (*dont-), gen. datáḥ (= Lat. dentis) “tooth” (secondary dánta-ḥ m.); Av. dantan- m. ds., dütü f. ds.; Arm. atamn, gen. -man “tooth” (*edn̥t-mn̥); Gk. (Ion. Att.) ὀδών, -όντος “tooth” (Att. ὀδούς neologism after (δι)δούς), Eol. ἔδοντες (ὀδόντ- assimilated from *ἐδόντ-?), νωδός “ edentulate, toothless “ for *νωδων after στράβων : στραβός under likewise; Lat. dens, -tis m. (*dn̥t-s); Osc. dunte[s] is ablaut “teeth”; O.Ir. dēt n., Welsh Bret. dant, Corn. dans “tooth” (*dn̥t-); O.H.G. zand, O.E. tōð (dat. sg., nom. pl. tēð, conservative stem), O.N. tǫnn (nom. pl. teðr, tennr, conservative stem); zero grade (from the weak case), Goth. tunÞus (from dem acc. tunÞu = Lat. dentem) “tooth” (derivative O.E. tūsc “fang” from *tunÞ-ska-); Lith. dantìs, gen. pl. dantų̃ (dial. also dančių ̃ ) “tooth”; Slav. probably in Pol. dzięgna “ stomatitis, inflammation of the mouth, mouth decay, inflammation of the gums “ (*dęt-gna, s. Berneker 190). forms with e-grade don”t stand firm accordingly; O.N. tindr “cusp, peak, crag “, M.H.G. zint, -des “prong, spike, tine “, O.E. tind m. ds., O.H.G. zinna (*tindjü) “pinnacle”, O.H.G. zinko (*tint-kō) “ tine “ belong to O.Ir. dind “hill, lifting “, Phryg. Δίνδυμος mountain name, Illyr. VN Δίνδαροι.
    References: WP. I 118 ff., WH. I 340 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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